My Puppy Mill Education

After the November election, I learned that Missouri voters passed legislation known as the Puppy Mill Cruelty Prevention Act (Proposition B).  As I began surfing the Internet to learn more, I anticipated reading about strict new regulations that would dramatically limit the number of dogs per “breeding factory” along with regulations that would enhance the physical and emotional well being of dogs unfortunate enough to wind up in puppy mills.  Here is what I read.  Proposition B stipulates that breeders may have up to 50 breeding dogs at any given time (no, the number 50 is not a typo). Additionally, this new legislation requires that dogs be provided with:

-Sufficient food that is provided at least once daily
-Access to water that is not frozen and is free of debris, feces, algae, and other contaminants
-Necessary veterinary care (an examination at least once yearly by a licensed veterinarian)
-Sufficient housing including protection from the elements
-Sufficient space to turn and stretch freely and fully extend limbs
-Adequate rest between breeding cycles (no more than two litters during an 18 month time period)

Fifty dogs at a time? Daily food and clean water required? Enough space to allow dogs to stand up and stretch their legs?  Was this really the best that puppy mill reform legislation could provide- nothing more than the bare basics to sustain a modicum of physical comfort for puppy mill “livestock”? How could this be? I addressed my surprise and disappointment by contacting and asking questions of Jennifer Fearing, the California senior state director for the Humane Society of the United States who was in Missouri prior to the election canvassing for votes for Proposition B. Her responses were informative and heartfelt, and she was so genuinely patient in responding to my lack of awareness.  Jennifer has graciously allowed me to share her comments with you:

“Under the old Missouri law, dogs can be kept in wire-floored cages just six inches longer than their bodies.  The cages can be stacked on top of each other.  A veterinarian must make an annual walk-through of a facility but there is no requirement that the dogs get actual exams or even treatment for any existing conditions or injuries.  Dogs are bred on every single heat cycle, leading to dogs so bred-out that we routinely see young dogs (three to four years old) whose teeth have all fallen out because their systems are so overtaxed and malnourished, and whose teats are dragging on the ground.  The old law does have a provision regarding extreme temperatures, but it says that dogs couldn’t face extreme temperatures for more than three consecutive hours, making enforcement impossible because no inspector is going to stand around with his thermometer in the air for three hours.  There is a vague requirement for an exercise plan, but that too is unenforceable and as a result we see dogs who have clearly lived their entire lives on wire floors and never set foot on solid ground.
The new law, which goes into effect one year from passage:  Every dog must have a solid-floored enclosure that allows constant, unfettered access to a larger outdoor area.  Larger enclosure sizes are required with specific sizing requirements based on the size of the dog.  Each dog must receive an annual exam and any dog who is sick or suffering must receive veterinary treatment.  No dog may have more than 2 litters in any 18 month period, which essentially means every 3rd cycle is rested, giving them a chance to recuperate from the exhausting cycle of carrying and nursing pups.  The time limit mentioned above is removed so that dogs cannot be kept in temperatures below 45 degrees or above 85 degrees, period.
Just as importantly, these new requirements are simple and easy to enforce.  Currently in Missouri, if law enforcement gets a complaint call they must call in the experts from the Department of Agriculture to help interpret 30+ pages of vague, confusing and outdated regulations.  Because of backlogs and understaffing, it can take six months or longer for an Ag inspector to even show up.  But any Sheriff’s deputy can interpret these new requirements – anyone can see if a floor is solid or wire; if cages are stacked; if the dogs have access to an outdoor area; if there are more than 50 dogs; etc.  So instead of leaving the dogs to suffer for another six months, law enforcement can file criminal charges on the spot.
And the penalties may seem modest but any violation of the new Puppy Mill Cruelty Prevention Act is a criminal offense, which leads to license forfeiture. And if conditions rise to the level of animal cruelty, the offender can be charged instead under the existing state animal cruelty law.
Missouri is only the fifth state to cap the number of dogs a commercial breeder can keep.  Since 2008, Oregon, Washington and Virginia have set the number at 50, and Virginia includes a provision allowing the state to allow more than 50 if certain conditions are met.  Louisiana has a cap of 75.  It’s important to remember that these bills are not intended to ban commercial breeding, they are simply designed to eliminate the worst abuses at puppy mills and create more humane living conditions for the dogs who live there.  And the data (from state and federal inspection reports) are clear that the largest facilities accumulate the most frequent and most severe violations.
I should mention too that the new law is in addition to, and not in lieu of, the existing regulations.  Those regulations still exist, this law is simply an overlay to correct the weak and vague areas of the regulations that allowed dogs to suffer.
Finally, the significance of this law passing in the epicenter of the puppy mill industry cannot be overemphasized.  It will lead to similar restrictions in other states and to vast improvement in the living conditions of dogs kept for the commercial pet trade.”

Jennifer’s explanations certainly changed my perspective about the benefits provided by Proposition B.  While this legislation will not create an existence for a puppy mill victim that in any way resembles my notion of what every dog deserves, no doubt its enforcement will make a positive difference in the current dismal quality of many lives.  I must admit that after reading Jennifer’s response my overriding feeling was, “Shame on me!” As a veterinarian I’m embarrassed by my naïveté about puppy mills.  To some degree, I think I’ve been floating along that river in Egypt (De Nial)- far more pleasant to be “out of touch” rather than “in touch” with the true horrors of what goes on in puppy mills. Sure, via my blog and in Speaking for Spot I’ve advocated against supporting puppy mills by avoiding purchasing puppies from pet stores or on line (sight and site unseen). I simply don’t think my efforts have been adequate.  While I’m certain that I need to do more to create puppy mill reform, I’m not yet sure what that “more” looks like yet. Stay tuned- I will keep you posted as I figure it out. Have you taken a stance against puppy mills?  If so what has been your strategy?

By the way, I debated whether or not to release a blog on such a serious topic while my readers are in the midst of the holiday hustle.  My hope is that the thoughts expressed will provide some inspiration- always a good thing during the holiday season.

Best wishes for a lovely holiday season.   

Nancy Kay, DVM
Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Author of  Speaking for Spot: Be the Advocate Your Dog Needs to Live a Happy, Healthy, Longer Life
Recipient, American Animal Hospital Association 2009 Animal Welfare and Humane Ethics Award
Recipient, 2009 Dog Writers Association of America Award for Best Blog
Recipient, 2009 Eukanuba Canine Health Award
Become a Fan of Speaking for Spot on Facebook 

Please visit to read excerpts from Speaking for Spot. There you will also find “Advocacy Aids”- helpful health forms you can download and use for your own dog, and a collection of published articles on advocating for your pet’s health. Speaking for Spot is available at, local bookstores, and your favorite online book seller. 

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25 Responses to “My Puppy Mill Education”

  1. Roberta Says:

    Dr. Kay, I voted against Prop B. I could send you a side by side comparison of the Prop B AMENDMENT to our existing law: Prop B is not a new law. The only change is the 50 dog limit. The puppy mills here in the state to which your source referred are those not licensed to begin with – when a mill is found, we have Operation Bark Alert. In the past two years, the crackdowns on puppy mills escalated tremendously with a new director at MO Dept of Ag and the use of Operation Bark Alert. Don’t be misled by HSUS – they got their publicity but now are not helping us in the least.

  2. Nacina Dawn Says:

    Good article but the right side of the text was missing making it a little hard to read. Thank you for posting this. ~Nacina Dawn

  3. Kaari Says:

    I wish there could be a FEDERAL LAW, so football stars, movie stars and just anyone would be regulated. They would all be on the same “playing field”.
    I just feel so bad for the dogs. It’s as bad as the greyhounds they race, then get rid of them, (throw aways).
    We had a large puppy mill by St. Cloud, MN, that was allowed
    with some changes in regulations.
    Dogs should not be used to be a source of income, often the
    only income these people depend on!

  4. Erich Riesenberg Says:

    Dr. Kay I want to thank you for being open and honest about your knowledge of puppy mills. As a pet owner and someone who cares about pets but does not have a financial stake, all the competing interests and their own financial motivations leave me confused.

    As to HSUS, they may be right on this bill but their support of Mr Vick as a dog owner should have all people asking HSUS what is wrong with HSUS.

    I do wish more vets would advocate for pet welfare in general. There are vets in every community and if they advocated against puppy mills, dog fighting, and so on, there would be change.

    If you want to speak with a vet who has spent a lot of her life working on these issues check out

    Thank you for your honest insight into this issue.

  5. BuckHawk Susan Says:

    Dr. Kay, I represent an animal rescue in Missouri and I voted FOR Prop B. I did that because this amendment raised awareness of the issue of Puppy Mills. Just as it got you talking and blogging about it, it got others to do the same. That river in Egypt may just loose some of its volume.

    I understand Roberta’s frustration at the HSUS. I weighed my decision very carefully since I did feel this would end up being ineffective. Licensed facilities are not the bulk of the problem, the unlicensed ones are the true abusers.

    The real help we need in this state is more space to rescue those dogs who are taken from the abusers.

    The law I would like to see enacted is the one that removes the profit from breeding animals. That would simply put all puppy mills out of business.

  6. Donna Says:

    My stance is that even though I may not choose to keep 5, 50, or even 500 dogs myself, if someone else can handle it, a) there are already cruelty laws on the books to handle these situations b) breeding dogs is a legitimate business. Again, it’s not where I choose to buy MY dogs but a lot of others do- who are we to get in the way of legitimate commerce just because we all have different ideas of how animals should be kept?

    I do have to say, I am a little disappointed that vets seem to know so little about HSUS and how it pushes its agenda via half truths, out of date statistics, and outright lies.

  7. Pam Says:

    Nancy, anything to shut down puppy mills is a help. They can put all the laws in the world out there but if law enforcement doesn’t enforce those laws, what good are they?

    Protests, you bet! Contacting legislators and county commissioners, esecially during an eection year, is a must.

    One of the biggest puppy mill auctions in the country is held in Ohio twice a year. They come from all over the country to buy and sell. It’s a terrible, heartrending event to behold.

  8. Mary Shaver Says:

    Ohio has no laws preventing dog auctions, a major distribution channel for puppy mill breeders.

    Buyers and sellers who attend this auction come from 15 states, and many of them have long standing, repeated violations of the Animal Welfare Act and/or have been convicted of animal cruelty.

    Many concerned citizens firmly believe the auctions serve not reputable breeders but large commercial facilities where dogs are bred to produce as many puppies as possible in conditions ranging from unsanitary to inhumane.

    The Coalition to Ban Ohio Dog Auctions is spearheading a new, citizen-backed ballot initiative – The Ohio Dog Auctions Act.

    The measure (similar in language to Pennsylvania’s Statute 459-603) will establish a statute to the Ohio Dog Law making it illegal for anyone to auction or raffle a dog in Ohio. It also would prohibit bringing dogs into the state for sale or trade that were acquired by auction or raffle elsewhere.

    Businesses and groups from all over Central Ohio have been showing their support by writing letters, organizing and making their views known. But we need to turn up the volume. Our elected officials need to know without a doubt that this issue matters.

    If you are interested in helping us with this campaign, we want to hear from you! Please visit or contact us at

    With more strategic action, we can end dog auctions in Ohio. Very simply, it is our choice.

  9. Barbara and Daisy Says:

    good laws are always helpful, but the way to stop the mills, (and wars) is to take the profit away. Richmond BC helped do that by stopping the sale of puppies in pet stores.

    Any publicity about the conditions, and consequences of health problems in mill puppies, is valuable. I think especially at Christmas when people are inclined to buy that cute little puppy in the window as a gift.

  10. Linda Henning Says:

    Dr, Kay

    Good article and an eye opener.
    I don’t have a good feel for puppy mill occurrences here in Alaska. We have sled dog kennels, some OK, some bad that have more than 50 dogs. I’m sure many still use old culling methods, shooting is legal here. My best guess is that there are people with fewer than 25 dogs selling puppies for some of their income. The ones I have seen are closer to crazy than having any thought out business plan. They see nothing wrong with what they are doing.

    When I called doing research on this subject most vets are loathe to share, saying if they do they will loose the trust (ok I translate that to $$ based on the particular vets saying it) of clients. But we do see the same people selling dogs in parking lots each year. I’m starting with this next issue to bang the drum about buying from the breeders who are breeding every year WITH the plan to sell on Craig’s list and the roadsides.

    We’ll feature “meet the breeds” each month with that the comment at the end informing people that when they buy a pup in a parking lot they are promoting the continued abuse of the dogs. Or something like that. And encourage them to go to the breed and sport clubs to find pure bred dogs. All but one Retriever club here requires that the dogs have all of their health certifications. The last is considering it.

    I got a very disjointed letter from a in Aniak. Imagine the most impoverished town you have ever seen in the US and take it off the road system only accessible by air and then put them in a deep freeze. That’s Aniak and many other villages in remote Alaska. (NOT Sarah Palin’s version) Kathy’s letter was so frustrated and angry attacking breeders in general, mainly Labrador breeders who are sending puppies out to the villages when someone can cough up $500. There is no vet care so they get pregnant in short order. So my first “meet the breed” will be Labradors, having raised, trained and even bred (once) them. Good timing on this blog subject.
    Linda Henning – publisher Alaska Dog News

  11. Anne Says:

    Unfortunately, this type of law will ultimately hit decent show/hobby breeders more than anyone and contains provisions that are just stupid. For example, it requires that dogs have 24-hour access outside. Really? How many normal people’s dogs have 24-hour access outside? And is that even a good idea? We have coyotes here that recently nearly killed my neighbor’s dogs, so mine are not outside at night without me there with them. And who in their right mind would leave a bitch due to whelp with unfettered access outside? Puppy mills suck, but there are laws already on the books that just need to be enforced. When HSUS/PETA is successful at eliminating pets altogether, then it will be too late. There are already areas of the country where pet ownership is so overregulated that decent pet owners are moving away.

  12. Linda Says:

    I will not support PET STORES that sell puppies/kittens. If everyone stopped patronizing them it would help to limit the number of puppy mills.

  13. Sue Says:

    Thanks for posting on this important topic. What is astounding is that there were vocal opponents of this legislation who spread the typical HumanWatch*-bred conspiracy theories anytime any legislation seeks to even marginally improve the lives of animals. (HumaneWatch is yet another front for PR flak Rick Berman’s misleadingly-named “Center for Consumer Freedom,” which has made a name for itself targeting groups like HSUS, along with Mothers Against Drunk Driving on behalf of the beverage industry, and which promotes tanning beds as “good for you.”).

    Someone above asked “who are we to get in the way of legitimate commerce just because we all have different ideas of how animals should be kept?”

    The answer is we’re CITIZENS, voters, members of communities. And we have a right to legislate for basic standards of common decency and humane treatment for animals. They can’t do it for themselves.

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  15. Jackie Jurasek Says:

    Hi Dr. Kay;

    Being in the animal control field, we see a lot of puppy mill puppies. They usually have some sort of health issue…from terribly undershot jaws to prolapsed rectums. They usually have social issues (very timid) and we have very little luck adopting them out as they cringe in the back of the kennel for the duartion of their stay.
    I understand that it is a business to the people that breed these unfortunate souls… just like cattle and sheep ranchers. Even cattle and sheep are allowed room to roam around.
    I would hope that people will contine to avoid buying puppies from pet stores and flea markets and maybe when the demand dwindles, these breeders will find another way to make a living without exploiting the love and devotion that a dog gives.
    I still feel that the only hope for dogs and cats having a better chance at life is through an aggressive spay and neuter program. There are so many rural areas that have no help whatsoever for animal care and that is where our problem lies.
    Have a merry Christmas and a wonderful New Year!
    Jackie Jurasek

  16. Carmen Buitrago Says:

    Thank you, Dr. Kay, for your great article, “My Puppy Mill Education.” It in no way dampened my holidays, it enlightened me!

  17. Debby Reilly Says:

    Dear Dr
    I must say I agree with Buckhawk Susan in regards to completely removing the profit somehow from puppy mills and inhumane breeders.
    How this can be accomplished remains to be seen! A law should be created but this country has its hands full at the moment and animals are probably a low priority for lawmakers. We were fortunate to rescue
    a Pug last November from a shelter in St. Louis that takes in puppy mill
    pups and we love this new addition to our family. Oliver has a loving warm home with another Pug to play with and plenty of food and clean water with a big yard to run in! Not to mention great Veterinary care and
    lots of hugs and attention. My heart goes out to the many puppy mill pups who are NOT as lucky. I wish I could take them all home!

  18. Candi Says:

    Good article! I just wish I could understand why puppy mills can’t be automatically shut down. There is no need for them, there is no need for the cruelty and horrible life these dogs endure. I have 2 Missouri puppy mill survivors at my home right now that I am fostering. They have come a long way. One spent 4 yrs of her life giving birth and being fearful, the other spent 7 yrs of his life being a \stud\ dog. They have come along way from where they were , but yet they still carry some \baggage\ from those years, maybe they will carry it forever. They have learned to trust to a certain extent, there’s still a hesitation. He is still fearful of all strangers with the exception of myself. With me he is a happy boy, plays like a puppy, somehow learned to sit and shake paw! From just running outside to quickly \go\ to spending some time outside without running in fear. She is doing well, still fearful of men, but has gone to events etc and adjusting quite well, though still has that fear. From a usual kiss right away from a non-puppy mill dog, to over 9 months to finally they get the nerve up to give a kiss! People asked oh they are so afraid of the vet’s office or being in public. I speak for them and let these people know, this is what you don’t see at the pet shop, the parents. If these 2 dogs weren’t rescued when they were, their fate was a bullet for each. Animals are not a cash crop. God made a covenant with ALL living creatures, it’s some humans that abuse that covenant. The pups in a pet shop, if the public does not buy them, they go back to a puppy mill, either to spend their lives in a tiny cage, breeding more of their kind and living a life that was not intended for them, or they are killed. That’s their fate – either/or. Laws should just shut them down, no loopholes, no amendments – just a sign that says \Closed\, forever.

  19. Linda Says:

    Dr. Kay,
    Good to know Vet’s are finally realizing what puppy mill’s are and how cruel they are. As a breeder of rottweilers for over 20 years now, with all due respect, 50 dogs in one place? Come on how can you properly take care of that many animals and at 50 dogs, say 25 are females with puppies, how can anyone take care of that many dogs It takes alot for me to raise a litter and I have two other people to help. I also have a Rescue Group that I am the Director of, we can only house so many because of space, so we can’t save as many as we would like too. But the dogs we do take in have proper vet care, food, water, and a play area.

  20. Sarah Says:

    Wow. Hot topic. I work in a store where we do not even showcase dogs for adoption from the shelter, let alone sell puppies (shudder!). But one of my big problems is with the backyard “breeders” who keep indiscriminently breeding their dogs — they are also puppy mills. They are sending puppies out at 5 or 6 weeks old, too young to be away from mom, without vet visits, too young for shots, no pre-natal care, selling those pups for what they think is a business.

    What they are doing is weakening their bitches by breeding on every heat cycle, with no vet care. Many of these are pitbulls with health problems (mostly skin problems) being passed on in the puppies. Many of these people say they are “champion lines,” and are breeding in a county where breeding is illegal but enforcement is very difficult.

    Unfortunately, many backyard breeders think this is a way to make side money, but they are not properly taking care of their animals, either physically or emotionally. The shelter is full of unwanted puppies and “oops” cross-breeds when the un-neutered pitbull males get loose.

    Unfortunately, people keep paying for these backyard bred dogs, whether pits or labs or doodles, supporting backyard puppy mills.

    Who suffers? The dogs do. It is so unfortunate.
    I try so hard to gently advocate spay and neuter all the animals, for their sake.

  21. Louisa Says:

    I’m all for legal reform & enforcement; that should be a no-duh. But the bottom line is, I think, always going to be the bottom line. If people, nationwide, vote with their wallets & do the right thing, eventually these puppy mills, or most of them, will go out of business. Just as the “locavore” movement, that of purchasing one’s food LOCALLY, is growing & thereby reducing our environmental “footprint”, so too must the purchasing of any living creature, (ideally accompanied by an onsite visit) to reduce our contributing to the suffering of other species. It’s absolutely doable. Good rule of thumb: if you can’t go visit the kennel yourself, then it is probably located too far away to do business with. Furthermore, people need to accept that when it comes to a living creature, it is an adoption, not an acquisition. Getting a new pup is not the time for instantaneous gratification! If one is absolutely set on a pure breed or a “designer breed” (aka a mutt), then it is worth researching the breeder(s) more deeply & waiting for the right one.

  22. Jackie Says:

    Thank you for posting. I will also dig deeper. I have a weekly Shelter Scoop on our local radio and will become more vocal about puppy mills. There is only one minute to offer a Training Tip and my boarding/kennel ad where I can say something in addition to the shelter’s Pet of the Week, but if I keep bringing this topic up over and over maybe I can prevent one person from buying a puppy mill puppy.
    Roberta’s post is also interesting. Will look into Operation Bark Alert. Thank you all.

  23. Sandy Clabaugh Says:

    Must agree with Sarah — the big mills are not the only problem, it is also the small back-yard ‘hobby’ breeders. If breeders will not regulate themselves (and from reading HumaneWatch and various Pet-Law yahoo groups it is obvious they will not) then government action has to be taken because we have far too uneducated a public to stop them through the pocket book, although that is the preferred way. Just saw a 4-week old Chihuahua puppy at the vet the other day — I asked if she had the litter at home. Oh no, she had bought him from a backyard breeder — he wasn’t even weaned, she was bottle feeding him. I’m in TX now and apparently little is done to regulate any animal care laws (they are all livestock, after all!) and how I would love to see a national law restricting sale of any puppies/kittens until a minimum age of 8 weeks and only with an accompanying health certificate such as required in NH. Then, when this isn’t followed, there is a legitimate reason for legal intervention with that breeder. What I do not understand to this day, and I’ve been trying to wrap my head around it for 12 years now, is why those who do consider themselves to be “responsible breeders” continue to fight against regulations. If they are doing everything right they must have a higher price for their puppies or they have less profit — why wouldn’t they, from an economic perspective alone (hang the welfare of the pups they create and send out without every looking back at them) want to even the playing field? The fight breeders put up and the lies they spread about HSUS and other animal welfare groups make me crave a bumper sticker that reads “Responsible breeder is an oxymoron.”

    I’m a college instructor and teach ethics — you better believe I’m educating my students about puppy mills and animal welfare. I remain amazed (and discouraged) by the number of students who have no idea what a puppy mill is, how huge an overpopulation problem we have, how many are with rescue and shelters and how many are destroyed — many of which were those adorable pet store puppies or poorly bred back yard pups who came loaded with baggage from Day One.

    And lest one think I’m down on all of Texas, Austin just passed a law restricting retail sale of animals and requiring the mom be on the premises to prevent individuals from setting up their “in home” pet stores with shipments from mills and pretending to raise “home-raised” puppies and sell them via the internet, which is a HUGE problem you need to also look at while pursuing this matter further.

    Thank you for the blog — we need more like this. Educate, educate, educate! We won’t get them all, but each one who turns their back on pet stores and irreponsible breeders means one less puppy bred in the future to continue this cycle.

  24. Shelley Says:

    Thank you for speaking out on this issue. Unfortunately, the fight isn’t over in Missouri. Agribusiness is a powerful lobby here, and we already have state representatives who are putting forth bills to undermine Proposition B.

    The same is happening Oklahoma–an effort to undermine new regulations on puppy mill enforcement, most backed by powerful agribusiness interests; not because these interests care overmuch about dog breeding, but because they see any move to ensure animal welfare as a direct threat to their other more important animal operations, such as those involving cattle, chickens, and hogs.

    We’ve not only had to fight against HumaneWatch and its egregious falsehoods, and powerful agricultural lobbies, we’ve also had to struggle with the Missouri Veterinarian Medical Association, the AKC, and the American Veterinarian Medical Association.

    The AKC’s actions have been shameful. It’s even partnered with Hunte Corporation, the largest puppy broker in the world, moving over 90,000 puppies a year. An organization currently undergoing investigation for the thousands of dead puppies found in trenches on its property.

    Then there’s the AVMA, as witness this video on Proposition B by AVMA’s DeHaven:

    When you consider that Dr. DeHaven was head of USDA breeder enforcement when it received negative marks for its lax enforcement, it’s probably not surprising that Dr. DeHaven would side with the breeders.

    It has been discouraging, though to see these organizations come out against animal welfare. If you’re looking for that “more…” in the fight against puppy mills, this would be a good place for someone like yourself to start. We need respected veterinarians to speak out. Desperately.

    Thanks again for your writing, and your care. Happy holidays.

  25. Tamara Dormer Says:

    visit this site to read more about how you can work towards 1/educating people about puppy mills and 2/eventually (hopefully) shutting them all down.

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